COM. NARESH KUMAR PASSED AWAY

Very sad news. Com.Naresh Kumar, Circle President, BSNLEU Haryana Circle and one of the leaders who strenghthened the union in Haryana to the present position passed away today morning. He worked at Hissar. He was always very active and gave leadership along with Com.M.S.Kadian, Circle Secretary. His wife Smt. Asha Rani is working as DGM Finance BSNL at Hisar.His death is an irreparable loss. My heartfelt condolences to the bereaved family, comrades and friends.

HISTORIC 5 DAYS STRIKE OF 1960 – (7)

  1. JOINT ACTION COMMITTEE PREPARES FOR INDEFINITE STRIKE

A meeting of the full Joint Action Committee was held at Bombay on 29th May 1960 presided over by V.G.Dalvi, Chairman. S.Madhusudan, E.X.Joseph, K.M.Nair (Confederation), K.G.Shreevastava, P.C.Banerjee, J.Jambusamy, D.Lobo, K.M.Mathews (AIDEF), Gopal Singh Josh, Chandrasekhar, K.Ramamoorthy, P.S.R.Anjaneyulu, O.P.Gupta (NFPTE), V.R.Malagi, Umraomal Purohit, Amaresh Sen, B.P.Roy Choudhury, J.P.Chaubey, R.C.Chakraborty, Sathyan Kar (AIRF) along with JAC Secretary Peter Alvares participated. All of them were well known and respected leaders of their respective organizations.

The meeting gave call to form Joint Action Committees at all levels as part of the preparation for strike and to organize meetings to explain the decision to go on strike and the demands. To meet urgently on emergent matters, a small committee was formed with Peter Alvares (SG AIRF), S.M.Joshi (SG AIDEF), D.S.Rajaratnam (SG Confederation) and P.S.R.Anjaneyulu (NFPTE).

Although the JAC had requested for a meeting with the Prime Minister, it was intimated that since the Prime Minister is proceeding to the Common Wealth Conference, no time can be fixed to meet the unions. Considering this fact and other points, the date of the indefinite strike was postponed from 19th June to midnight of 11/12 July 1960. The reply received after the return of Prime Minister from the Conference was very much disappointing. It was stated that the Pay Commission report is treated as an award and hence no change can be made. Hence it was added that there will be no use in a discussion with the unions. It was suggested in the letter that the unions can discuss the issues with their respective departmental authorities, but it was of no use as the matters were of a general nature and no department can take independent decisions. Probably in giving such a reply, the Prime Minister might have been irritated by the formation of the JAC and the strike decision.

The reply from the Prime Minister denying any discussion with the unions created a tense situation. Workers became angry that the Prime Minister was not even prepared to discuss the demands with their leaders. They considered this as a great injustice. There was no scope for any further discussion, since the Prime Minister himself has closed the doors for negotiation. Even those leaders who had asked for some more time for the strike realized that strike was the only way. The reports received from the thousands of  branches were also for an immediate strike.

The JAC which was held at New Delhi on 23rd June 1960, called upon all the Federations / Unions to issue notice for strike on 25th June. The government may try to take all steps to crush the strike and victimize the workers and hence all preparations are required to defend the workers, advised the JAC.

The JAC gave letters seeking support and solidarity to AITUC, INTUC and HMS, which were the then National Trade Union Centres.

Strike notice was served on 25th June itself to the departmental heads by all Federations and Unions which are part of the JAC, along with the Charter of Demands for settlement of which the strike call is given. Workers started preparation for the strike, keeping away doubts and fears.

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru intervened at this stage and directed Labour Minister Gulzarilal Nanda to meet the unions and discuss the issues. The latter  met and discussed the issues with the leaders of the JAC at his official residence. Though there was some improvement in the discussion on Negotiating Machinery, Social Security, Service conditions etc. , there was no meeting ground on the most important issues of Dearness Allowance and Minimum Wage. Naturally, the negotiation failed.

Immediately the JAC met, reviewed the discussion and connected matters and decided to proceed with full preparations for the strike. It called upon the workers to make the strike a big success by full participation. The bugle has been sounded. The strike became inevitable. (To be continued).

COM.P.ABHIMANYU BEREAVED

CHQ is very much saddened to report that Smt. P. Dhanabakkiam (74), elder sister of Com.P.Abhimanyu, General Secretary, BSNLEU has passed away on today, the 12th May, 2021. He had lost his brother in law on 01-05-2021. Both have sucumbed to Covid-19. It is a irreparable loss to the entire family and difficult to bear.

AIBDPA expresses deep sorrow on the sad demises and conveys heartfelt condolences to Com.P.Abhimanyu and other family members.

HISTORIC 5 DAYS STRIKE OF 1960 – (6)

REPORT OF THE II CPC

The Report of the II Central Pay Commission was placed before the Parliament on 30th November 1959 by the Finance Minister along with the decisions taken by the government on Minimum Wage, Dearness Allowance, General Provident Fund, House rent Allowance, City Compensatory Allowance and other issues. The recommendations of the II CPC were most disappointing. Further, government did not take any decision making improvements on the recommendations. The workers and their unions were enraged. There was serious resentment among all sections of the workers.

NFPTE Federal Executive was held at Bombay on 5-8 December 1959 and discussed the whole issue in detail. It passed a resolution strongly protesting against the recommendations as well as the government decisions. It observed that the ‘workers are more disappointed after the recommendations of the II CPC, than before it was appointed.’ There was strong opinion that a strike should be organized immediately, but the leaders convinced that discussion with the government be held for getting improvements before any final decision is taken on strike.

The National Executive of Confederation which was held at Bombay on 9-10 December 1959 under the Chairmanship of Nath Pai, M.P. also expressed strong protest on the recommendations as well as on the decisions of the government. It was decided to meet the Prime Minister and discuss the matter. Along with that, it was also decided that a joint meeting of all the Federations/ Unions of C.G. employees be held to organize future programmes, if the government does not take favourable decisions.

Nath Pai. M.P., President of the Confederation, issued a statement against the unsatisfactory recommendations. A Protest Day was observed with massive participation on 7th January 1960 as per the call of the Confederation.

CONFEDERATION EXECUTIVE MEETING AT BOMBAY 23-24 JANUARY 1960

The Confederation Executive which met at Bombay on 23-24 January 1960  reviewed the entire situation and adopted a 12 Point Charter of Demands  as given below:

  1. Constitution of ‘Whitley Council’.
  2. Acceptance of the principle of Compulsory Arbitration.
  3. Compulsory GPF in its present form be withdrawn.
  4. For fixation of pay and pensionary benefits, 1.7.1957 should be the date.
  5. Formula of the Varadachariar Commission for grant of Dearness Allowance with suitable adjustment should be accepted.
  6. Status-quo should be maintained of the earned leave and casual leave. Industrial workers should be put on par with non-industrial workers in these matters and the operative staff should be made eligible for all public holidays or compensation thereof.
  7. Minimum Wage should be on the basis of the 15th
  8. Ceilings on increase as a result of fixation of pay should be lifted.
  9. Reclassification of cities should be done on the basis of present population; all state capitals should be classified as ‘B’ barring those with 10 lakh population and above. In places with high cost of living, adequate compensation should be provided.
  10. Efficiency Bar should be abolished.
  11. Weekly Off or Compensatory Off should be given to all.
  12. Confirmation in service to be ensured after one year service.

(It can be seen that many of the rights the employees are getting now were not available then, as the Charter of demands indicated). It was decided that the Charter should be ratified by all the affiliated federations /Unions of the Confederation. Talks were held between Nath Pai, Chairman of the Confederation, N.M.Joshi, General Secretary AIDEF and Peter Alvares, General Secretary, AIRF on the decisions of the Confederation. It was unanimously decided to move jointly against the II CPC recommendations.

BOMBAY CONVENTION ON 2-3 APRIL 1960

A Convention of Confederation, AIRF, AIDEF and NFPTE was held Bombay on 2-3 April 1960. NFPTE was represented by V.G.Dalvi, B.R.Bamotra, D.G.Nanotkar, B.W.Vaidya and R.S.Palsule. The Convention strongly protested the anti-worker stand of the government and took unanimous decision to go on Indefinite Strike with effect from 19th June 1960 on the following demands:

  1. Dearness Allowance to be paid on the basis of the First CPC recommendation @ Rs.5/- for every 20 points increase in the 12 monthly average of cost of living index 1947 = 100.
  2. Minimum Wage should be based on the norms prescribed by the First CPC.
  3. To set up a Standing Board consisting of equal representatives from employees’ Federations and officers of the various departments (government nominees) with a neutral Chairman to settle  all disputes / claims of any category of employees.
  4. No curtailment of any existing facilities, rights and privileges.
  5. To set up an Arbitration Board and recognize only one union in one industry.
  6. Withdraw the provisions of summary dismissal and punitive actions.

As part of preparing for a united struggle, a Joint Council of Action (JAC) was formed with V.G.Dalvi (NFPTE) as Chairman and Peter Alvares (AIRF) as Secretary.

The JAC organized Press Conference on 11th May. All the papers gave wide publicity to the views expressed by the JAC. As per the call of the Joint Action Committee, 25th May 1960 was observed as ‘Demands Day’ in all centres by holding rallies and meetings. 

NFPTE FEDERAL COUNCIL AT GAUHATI ON 19-25 APRIL 1960

It was at this juncture that the annual Federal Council of NFPTE was held at Guwahati from 19th to 25th April 1960. The FC was of the strong opinion that a struggle has become inevitable on the major demands of the P&T and central government employees. V.G.Dalvi and P.S.R.Anjaneyulu were elected as President and Secretary General.  (To be continued).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nath Pai

HISTORIC 5 DAYS STRIKE OF 1960 – (5)

  1. APPOINTMENT OF II CENTRAL PAY COMMISSION

The government appointed II Central Pay Commission on 21st August 1957 with the following Members:

  1. Justice Jagannatha Das, Judge of the Supreme Court, Chairman
  2. V.B.Gandhi, Member
  3. N.K.Sidhantha, Member
  4. M.L.Dantwala, Member
  5. Mrs.Maragatham Chandrasekharan, Member
  6. L.P.Singh, ICS, Member Secretary
  7. P.F.B.Pias, Associate Secretary

Since there was delay in announcing Interim Relief, Confederation and NFPTE gave call to the workers to observe 13th September 1957 as “Interim Relief Day”, which was effectively organized. Dada Ghosh, Secretary General NFPTE, addressed a letter to the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru pointing out the delay in granting interim relief to which the PM replied that the Pay Commission is seized of the matter.

FEDERAL COUNCIL AT BOMBAY, 5-10 DECEMBER 1957

The Third Federal Council of NFPTE was held at Bombay from 5th to 10th December 1957. The FC reviewed the activities including the withdrawal of the strike and appointment of Pay Commission. The Council protested against the delay in grant of interim relief.  V.G.Dalvi and Dada Ghosh were re-elected as President and Secretary General of the Federation.

On 17th December 1957, Finance minister T.T.Krishnamachari announced interim relief of Rs. 5 per month to all officials drawing a basic pay not exceeding Rs.250/- as per the interim recommendations of the II CPC. The interim relief was completely insufficient. Hence the unions organized Pay Strike on 1st January 1958.

As per the call of the Confederation, workers launched ‘Signature Campaign’ from 16th February against the meagre interim relief. 1th March 1958 was observed as “All India Protest Day” by organizing general body meetings and mass rallies.

QUESTIONNAIRE BY THE PAY COMMISSION

The Pay Commission issued a questionnaire to the Unions seeking their replies and comments on the various points being considered by it. These included the General Principles, Minimum Remuneration, Dearness Allowance, Pay Structure, Conditions of Service, Facilities and Amenities, Economic Factors and General Matters. As per the Pay Commission, there were 18 lakh central employees, 21 lakh State employees and 16.70 employees in local bodies and teaching profession.

All the unions/associations of the central employees including Confederation and NFPTE gave detailed replies to the questionnaire. In their reply, they pointed out the criteria and unscientific proposals of the CPC questionnaire.

MEMORANDUM TO PAY COMMISSION

Just as in the case the First Pay Commission, a large number of unions submitted memorandums to the II CPC also. In reply to a question in Parliament raised by S.M.Banejee nad Prabhatkar, M.P.s, it was informed that 101 organisations in P & T alone had submitted memorandums. 22 Unions have replied to the questionnaire. Except NFPTE, all were small sectional unions or associations. NFPTE and the 9 affiliated unions gave detailed Memorandum touching all important points.

All India Railwaymens Federation, All India Defence Employees Federation and other major Federations also submitted detailed memorandums. These Federations pointed out specific issues of employees of their particular departments.

EVIDENCE BEFORE PAY COMMSSION

NFPTE and its 9 affiliated unions gave oral evidence before the II CPC for four days from 29th July to 1st  August 1958. The full Pay Commission including Chairman was present. V.G.Dalvi, President, B.N.Ghosh, Secretary General, V.S.Menon, Secretary and  all General Secretaries along with a few other office bearers participated including O.P.Gupta, R.P.Chatterjee, A.S.Rajan, D.Gnaniah, Jamna Das Akthar, Gopal Singh Josh, Ajoy Kmar Das, Sisir Bhattacharjee, Pakrasi, D.G.Nanotkar, P.S.R.Anjaneyulu, Dharam Vir, Kabal Singh and Sarjesh Mukherjee. All the issues were effectively placed before the Pay Commission with special importance to Minimum Wage, Interim Relief, Dearness Allowance, Pay Scales, Promotions, Service Conditions, Union rights & privileges.

Other Federations also submitted their evidence before the Commission with special reference to their departments.

The Federal Council of NFPTE held at Jaipur from 26th to 31st December 1958 reviewed the developments after submission of memorandum and oral evidence to the II CPC. The issue of brutal victimization, including dismissal of CG employees under Rule 4(A) and 4(B) of the CCS (Conduct) Rules also came up for discussion. Com. E.X.Joseph, General Secretary of Audit & Accounts Association, was dismissed under these rules and the employees in the department were fighting a heroic battle.

The Federal Council after thorough discussion decided to organize the following agitational programmes demanding early submission of CPC report as also settlement of other demands and against victimization:

  1. Demands day on 11.02.1959
  2. Pay Strike on 02.03.1959 (01.03.59 Sunday)
  3. Telegram Campaign on 16.03.1959
  4. Pay Strike and Badge Campaign on 01.05.1959
  5. If the issues are not settled, extra ordinary meeting of the branches will be held to ascertain the opinion of the members for strike action.

The Federal Council re-elected V.G.Dalvi and B.N.Ghosh as President and Secretary General respectively.

All the agitational programmes were effectively organized. The workers were agitated at the delay in submission of the Pay Commission report. (To be continued).

HISTORICAL FIVE DAYS OF STRIKE 1960 – 4

NOTICE FOR 1957 STRIKE & ACHIEVEMENT
The formation of Confederation of Central Government Employees & Workers gave hope and confidence to the workers. There were two important developments during this period. One was the resolution adopted on ‘Socialist Pattern of Society’ in the 1956 Avadi Conference of Indian National Congress. Second development was the decision taken in the 1957 Tripartite Labour Conference regarding Need Based Minimum Wage. Both were appreciated by the workers.
Ten years have passed after the First Pay Commission submitted its recommendations. National income has increased. The employees who are part of implementation of the programmes of the central government with sincerity and devotion expected that they had a right to get some benefit out of these favourable developments. The time to improve the salary and service conditions of the central employees had arrived, they felt.
Confederation and NFPTE raised the demand of constitution of the Second Pay Commission before the government. They demanded increase in wages and DA. ‘Pay Boycott’ was organized on 1st January 1957 raising these demands. A ‘Badge Campaign’ was also observed later.
Although a meeting was held by Communications Minister Raj Bahadur with NFPTE leaders and assurances were given that the demands will be favourably considered, nothing happened. Discussions were held with the newly appointed Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri also, but no result.
The joint meeting of All India Unions affiliated to NFPTE was held on 6th July 1957 in Delhi, which discussed these developments. The meeting expressed its strong protest against the delay in appointment of II Pay Commission as also grant of DA according to cost of living index. After thorough discussion, it was decided to serve notice for indefinite strike with effect from the midnight of 8/9 August 1957. The meeting also elected a Joint Action Committee consisting of V.G.Dalvi, Dada Ghosh, V.S.Menon, R.P.Chatterjee, P.S.R.Anjaneyulu, O.P.Gupta, S.K.Pakrasi, Jamnadas Akthar, Dharam Vir, Kabal Singh, Sukhlal Sharma, Jagannath, R.K.Dutta and Dholo Ram.
Strike notice was served on the government on 15th July 1957 along with the Charter of Demands consisting of seven most important demands. Communications Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Labour Minister Gulzarilal Nanda issued press statements opposing the decision to go on strike. JAC through press conference exposed the statements of the Central Ministers with facts and figures.
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, along with Communications Minister and Labour Minister met the Joint Action Committee on 26th July and discussed the demands, but there was no assurance. Prime Minister was not prepared to appoint II Pay Commission. Hence the JAC decided to go on with strike preparations.
Central government on its part started hurried moves to crush the strike. Essential Service Maintenance Bill was presented in the Parliament on 5th August making strike punishable in essential services. Though many opposition M.P.s opposed, the bill was passed and ESMA came in to force.
K.K.Warrier, M.P. (CPI) moved a non-official bill in Parliament seeking appointment of II Central Pay Commission. Many M.P.s, including from the ruling party participated in the discussion supporting the same, putting the government under pressure.
The discussion in the Parliament, news in the press and the strong stand taken by the unions had its result. The Prime Minister issued press statement on 8th August 1957 announcing appointment of II Central Pay Commission. Communications Minister announced the following decisions:
1. The discrimination between Class III and Class IV employees on many service conditions will be removed. A separate committee will be appointed to deal with the problems of the ED employees.
2. Assam Compensatory Allowance issue will be settled. (P&T Employees in Assam were on agitation for months demanding restoration of the withdrawn Special Compensatory Allowance granted earlier considering the acute difficulties and special problems there).
The Joint Action Committee discussed the announcement of Pay Commission and assurances of the Prime Minister and Communications Minister and withdrew the proposed strike.
Achievements
1. Demand for appointment of II CPC agreed.
2. DA issue will be referred to Pay Commission.
3. Discrimination between Class III and Class IV employees in matters of Leave, Pension and Medical facilities will be removed. Discrimination in T.A., D.A. etc will be referred to CPC.
4. The demand of merger of DA with pay will be referred to CPC.
5. Assam Compensatory Allowance issue will be sympathetically considered.
It was a big success for the employees to get these assurances from a government, which at first was not prepared to discuss the demands and when discussion started was not prepared to concede the demands. It was a victory for the workers achieved through their determination to fight, pressure from the M.P.s and of course due to the full justification of the demands, themselves. (To be continued).
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Chandrasekharn Puthiyaveettil and Mgs Kurup

HISTORIC 5 DAYS STRIKE OF 1960 – 3

  1. FIRST CENTRAL PAY COMMISSION

The Pay Commission with Justice Sreenivas Baradacharya as Chairman furnished a questionnaire and gave it to all unions asking them to submit their comments. Different unions gave different and contradictory comments and demands. The effort for a uniform reply did not succeed. This failure on the part of the unions was unfortunate.

The Commission recommended grant of Rs. 5 as Dearness Allowance when the cost of living index goes up 20 points. Even though a small increase, this recommendation paved the way for grant of DA based on cost of living index for the first time. Some of the recommendations were unfavourable. The different demands raised by the unions might have been one of the reasons for the adverse recommendations.

UPTW formed

The unfavourable  recommendations of the Pay Commission were a warning to the unions. It underlined the need for a united organization. Discussions were held between the unions on this aspect and the result was the formation of the Union of Posts and Telegraph Workers (UPTW).

India became independent on 15th August 1947 ending the two centuries British rule. British rulers were sent back to their country. People were happy. India was declared a Republic on 26th January 1950.

The hope of the central employees that the new government headed by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru will do justice by taking favourable decisions on their important and urgent demands was soon found out to be a mirage. The Centre did not accept and implement the favourable recommendations of the Pay Commission including on DA. The spiraling price rise and unavailability of essential commodities made life miserable. The hoarders and black marketers had their day. The government utterly failed to contain steep price rise. The low paid central government employees were unable to make both ends meet. 

It was under these circumstances that the P&T and Railway employees decided to go on strike demanding control of prices of essential commodities, grant of DA for increased cost of living index etc. The government was not prepared to tolerate any strike. The Supreme Council of UPTW was convened at Madras to take the final decision to go on strike. The central government moved fast. Most of the leaders and activists reaching Madras Railway Station were arrested on the spot and jailed. Police camped at the Council site. The result was that no strike decision could be taken. The arrested leaders including K.G.Bose, O.P.Gupta, Moni Bose, Janak Gupta and others were kept in jail for months. Many were dismissed and terminated. Some of them including K.G.Bose, Moni Bose etc. were never reinstated in service. In between, the government passed an ordinance prohibiting strike. The strike did not take place.

NFPTE FORMED

This serious developments were discussed in UPTW council. Certain opinions arose whether it was correct to call for a strike when the new independent government had only started its work. There was a strong feeling that  efforts should be made by all the existing unions for a united organization.

The central government also came to the same conclusion. Instead of a number of unions to deal with, it was better if a single union was there. Communications Minister Rafi Ahmed Kidwai presented the government proposal for a single union. The next minister Jagjivan Ram discussed the issue in detail with the unions. The government had the thinking that  strikes can be avoided though discussion with a single union.

After detailed discussion between the unions and the government, it was decided to merge all the unions and form a new organization. According to the agreed proposals, there will be One Federation and 9 affiliated All India unions. Neither the affiliated unions can leave the Federation, nor  the Federation can disaffiliate any of the unions. It was a compulsory Federation. In the meeting of delegates of all the existing unions held at Delhi on 24th November 1954, National Federation of P & T Employees (NFPTE)  was formed with 9 affiliated All India Unions ie. Class III and Class IV unions in Postal, Telegraphs, Telegraph Engineering and RMS and one combined union of class III & IV in the PMG Offices. The government recognized NFPTE and its 9 affiliated unions and declared that it will not recognize any other union in P & T. V.G.Dalvi and Dada Ghosh were elected as the first President and Secretary General respectively of NFPTE.

The Confederation of Central Government Employees and Workers was formed on 16th August 1956 in a convention at Delhi participated by delegates from NFPTE, ITEF, Audit & Accounts Association, Civil Aviation, Survey of India, CPWD etc. This was a milestone in the forward march of the Central employees’ movement. AIRF and AIDEF, the organisations in Railways and Defence, did not join the Confederation probably due to the fact that both of them are having more employees / members than the total employees represented by Confederation. (To be continued).

Pay back wages to BSNL contract workers, Reinstate retrenched workers.

BSNL is doing great injustice to the contract workers engaged in BSNL. Without even paying back wages, thousands of contract workers have been retrenched. During the Covid-19 period when relief is to be given to the low paid workers, even their hard earned wages are not given. BSNL may be short of funds, but payment of wages is important and has to be paid. Do justice to the contract workers.

Compassionate appointment should re-start in BSNL.

The demand of the BSNL Unions and Associations that the ban on compassionate appointments in BSNL should be revoked is a fully justified and timely demand. BSNL is short of hands after about 80,000 employees took VRS under compulsion from management. Outsourcing of all works can not be done. To provide better service to the subscribers and to reduce the extreme workload of the existing employees, new recruitment is required. By restoring compassionate appointments, at least a small relief will be available. BSNL Management should seriously consider and accept the demand of the unions and associations. Further the question of new recruitment also is to be considered.

THE HISTORIC FIVE DAYS P & T STRIKE OF 1960 – 2

2. P & T STRIKE OF 1946

The global economic crisis of 1929 -30 did not spare British India. In fact, it was much more severe. The recommendations of the Jahangir Committee, which was appointed to suggest remedial measures utterly failed in its task. The recommendations were completely anti-worker. Ban on recruitment, reduction of existing wages and posts, abolition of ED posts, denial of trade unions rights – all were part of the recommendations. The Emergency Reduction Rules – 1931 was issued on 8th December 1931.

½ Anna ( One Rupee = 16 anna) per rupee was reduced from the salary of those drawing up to Rs. 30/- . For those drawing from Rs. 30 to Rs. 83, one anna per rupee was reduced. Government snatched away more than Rs. 2.75 crore through this method. The pay scales of new entrants were also reduced.

Then existing unions organized agitational programmes against this attack, but government did not relent. Instead, it started victimization of workers. The Second World War (1939 – 45) worsened the situation. During 1943-44, more than 35 lakh people perished in Bengal alone due to famine. When the Director General P & T called the unions and sought support to the government’s war efforts, the unions demanded that Dearness Allowance should be granted to meet the heavy increase in prices of essential commodities. Rationing system was introduced for the first time in the country.

The increase of Rs. 5 to 15 relief to employees recommended by the Adjudication Committee headed by High Court Judge Justice Rajyadhaksha was completely inadequate and did not satisfy the workers.

The II World War ended after Red Army of the USSR marched to Berlin defeating Hitler’s invasion and Japan cities Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombed by USA killing lakhs of people, devastating both the cities through atom explosion. The axis allies Germany-Japan-Italy who started the war were utterly defeated. USA-USSR-British alliance won decisively. The world never has seen so much loss of lives and devastation as in II World War. The United Nations was formed on 24th October 1945 to maintain world peace and to avoid another world war.

It was at this stage that the (First) Pay Commission was appointed by Government of India with Federal Court Judge Sreenivas Baradacharya as Chairman. The intention was to temporarily satisfy the employees and delay settlement of the demands raised by the unions.

Appointment of Pay Commission was not sufficient to satisfy the meagerly paid Postmen & Class IV employees. The All India Postmen & Lower Grade Staff Union headed by V.G.Dalvi served notice to the government for going on indefinite strike w.e.f. 11th July 1946 with the following most important demands:

1. Pay of all officials in P & T should be revised

2. Existing leave rules should be abolished and pre-31 orders restored

3. All distinction on Leave and Pension Rules between superior and inferior servants in P & T should be abolished

4. Officials who acted in higher grade for one year should be confirmed in those grades

5. Posts reserved for promotion for Postmen should be increased from 20% to 50%

6. No retrenchment – Retrenched officials should be reinstated

7. P & T Holidays should be as in other central government departments

8. Work done on Sundays and Postal Holidays should be compensated by Over Time Allowance

9. Gratuity @ one month’s pay for one year service should be granted to family of official dying before earning pension.

10. All distinction in the matter of pay, leave, DA & other allowances between A,B,C, areas should be abolished and all areas should be treated as A area

11. Medical examination for promotion should be abolished

12. Adequate leave reserve should be provided; temporary services should be counted for pension.

Other All India Unions did not serve strike notice on the ground that since Pay Commission has been appointed, there is no need for immediate strike.

The strike started on 11th July itself as given notice of. There was tremendous support for the strike from the people. The pitiable condition of the Postmen, who were delivering letters to them were known to all. Solidarity demonstrations were held with massive participation in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras etc.as per the call of AITUC. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru demanded the British government to accept the genuine demands of the postal workers.

As the news of the strike reached beyond the big cities, postmen in rural areas also participated. At the initiative of leaders like B.N.Ghosh (Dada Ghosh) and K.G.Bose, the Postmen strike was converted to P & T Strike in Bengal with all the P &T unions giving call for strike. In many circles, this was repeated. The P & T services were at a standstill.

Government was compelled to discuss with V.G.Dalvi and other leaders. All the major 12 demands were agreed and the strike was called off on 3rd August 1946 after 23 days. It was a complete success for the workers.

Dada Ghosh, one of the leaders of the strike in Bengal ( who later became the first Secretary General of NFPTE), assessed the strike as follows:

“The strike was not any superimposed movement, but it was a natural outburst of the genuine hardship of the employees. In no civilized country could anyone think of stoppage of Postal, Telegraph and Telephone services for two or three weeks. The strike was a long drawn one because of the callous and unsympathetic attitude of the government. But even then, the public sympathy was a parting kick to the British imperialism in India. Just after a week of the withdrawal of the strike, the Congress formed the Interim Government with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as the Prime Minister of India. Future historians, I am sure, will have to admit it.”

Like the Revolt of the Indian Navy ( Navy Mutiny) at the same time, the P & T Strike also is considered as part of the Independence Movement.

Although the Railway Unions had given strike notice earlier, they were withdrawn on the assurance that Pay Commission will be appointed. But the Railway Unions in South India went on Strike. They were severely punished. (To be continued).